Reducing Health Inequalities

In low- and middle-income countries, a hospital is often the first stop for citizens that experience illness, And as countries grow economically, the demand for quality health services at all levels is very important.


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In low- and middle-income countries, a hospital is often the first stop for citizens that experience illness, And as countries grow economically, the demand for quality health services at all levels is very important.

Major infectious diseases:


Degree of risk: very high (2019)

Food or Waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2019)

Vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2019)

Water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2019)

Animal contact diseases: rabies (2019)

Respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2019)


Definition: This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.

food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:

Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.

Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.

Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.

Vectorborne diseases - acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:

Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito; parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases and the majority of 1.5-2.5 million estimated annual deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.

Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever and severe headache; occasionally produces shock and hemorrhage leading to death in 5% of cases.

Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever; occurs only in tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.

Japanese Encephalitis - mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral disease associated with rural areas in Asia; acute encephalitis can progress to paralysis, coma, and death; fatality rates 30%.

African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma; transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies; infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death; endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle and wild animals act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania; transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies; results in skin lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases occur in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Peru; wild and domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of infection.

Plague - bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible; recent plague epidemics occurred in areas of Asia, Africa, and South America associated with rural areas or small towns and villages; manifests as fever, headache, and painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses rapidly and without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a death rate in excess of 50%.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - tick-borne viral disease; infection may also result from exposure to infected animal blood or tissue; geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle aches followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels, urine, nose, and gums; mortality rate is approximately 30%.

Rift Valley fever - viral disease affecting domesticated animals and humans; transmission is by mosquito and other biting insects; infection may also occur through handling of infected meat or contact with blood; geographic distribution includes eastern and southern Africa where cattle and sheep are raised; symptoms are generally mild with fever and some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or ocular disease; fatality rates are low at about 1% of cases.

Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7 days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.

water contact diseases -acquired through swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers:

Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals and humans; infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil contaminated by animal urine; symptoms include high fever, severe headache, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, or respiratory distress; fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.

Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma; fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of parasite that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and intestines releasing eggs, which become trapped in tissues triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary or intestinal disease resulting in decreased work or learning capacity; mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa; humans act as the reservoir for this parasite. 


aerosolized dust or soil contact disease - acquired through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:

Lassa fever - viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys; endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct contact with or consumption of food contaminated by rodent urine or fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in epidemic outbreaks.

respiratory disease - acquired through close contact with an infectious person:

Meningococcal meningitis - bacterial disease causing an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord; one of the most important bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential to cause epidemics; symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches, and vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by respiratory droplets and facilitated by close and prolonged contact resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases, typically within 24-48 hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "Meningitis Belt" which stretches from Senegal east to Ethiopia.

animal contact disease - acquired through direct contact with local animals:

Rabies - viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central nervous system causing brain alteration and death; symptoms initially are non-specific fever and headache progressing to neurological symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.

Source: CIA World Factbook - This page was last updated on December 7, 2019

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10 Most Deathly Disease Cameroon

2, Malaria
3, Lower Respiratory Infections
4, Neonatal disorders
5, Diarrheal diseases
6, Ischemic heart disease
7, Stroke
8, Tuberculosis
9, Road injuries
10, Cirrhosis

Download Project Proposal for Maternal & Vulnerable Child Nutrition for Sustainable Health and Development  !! here !! 


Investment in Health Saves Lives and Money.

Investments in the right health solutions can lead to a sustainable future with measurable impact, within a generation. Optimistic about the future, Bill Gates predicts that, “By 2035, there will be almost no poor countries left in the world but this can only happen if healthcare facilities are put in place to provide the require healthcare needs of the population.” He argues that healthy people do more than merely survive. If children in Africa are healthy, then they can focus on school, eventually pursue a career, and ultimately work toward a self-sustainable Africa. At Mercy Initiative For Africa (MIFA), we believe that the economic health of Africans also depends first and foremost on the physical health of its greatest resource – its people.

    MIFA Offers Free Medical Care to OVC's         Orphans and Vulnerable Children

Many children around the world and in Africa in particular are dying every day because they lack access to affordable medical care. according to UNICEF statistics 2 Million children under the age of 5 die every year in west and central Africa a rate not to be neglected.


This is why MIFA in its humanitarian role and thanks to the help of its Partners, other ministries and organisations advocates on the establishment of several healthcare centers across Africa that will happily welcome and freely treats all registered and identified Orphans and Vulnerable children.

MIFA Construct hospitals in poor communities across Africa and offers free and affordable healthcare services to Orphans and Less Privileged persons

This healthcare center are therefore mainly intended for Orphans and less privileged Children. The Mission of MIFA is to carter for this children on all possible aspects.

MIFA Free Healthcare Centers Benefits;

  1. Offers Free & affordable medical services.

  2. An Eco-friendly environment

  3. A welcoming, lovely, loyal and respectful team

  4. A regular team of volunteer medical specialist from around the  globe. 

  5. Availability of Qualified medical personnel locals and international doctors.

  6. 100% Free medical treatments to Orphans and the less privileged.

  7. Well equipped healthcare facilities.

  8. Free healthcare tip Counseling.

Dying from lack of medicines

Approximately 1.6 million Africans died of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV-related illnesses in 2015. These diseases can be prevented or treated with timely access to appropriate and affordable medicines, vaccines and other health services. But less than 2% of drugs consumed in Africa are produced on the continent, meaning that many sick patients do not have access to locally produced drugs and may not afford to buy the imported ones.

Without access to medicines, Africans are susceptible to the three big killer diseases on the continent: malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Globally, 50% of children under five who die of pneumonia, diarrhoea, measles, HIV, tuberculosis and malaria are in Africa, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). The organisation defines having access to medicine as having medicines continuously available and affordable at health facilities that are within one hour’s walk of the population.

In some parts of Zimbabwe, for example, some nurses give painkillers to sick patients as a “treat-all drug,” says Charles Ndlovu, a Zimbabwean living in Botswana. Some of his family members have been treated in hospitals in Zimbabwe. With most medicines unavailable, the nurses have little choice.

Dave Puo, from Mpumalanga in South Africa, says that in his country, “when you seek medical attention, you are often informed that there is no medication and advised to go to the big hospitals,” which the majority of the poor cannot afford. “The system does not care about your [empty] pockets.”

Inhibiting factors

About 80% of Africans, mostly those in the middle-income bracket and below, rely on public health facilities, reported the World Bank in 2013. With public health facilities suffering chronic shortages of critical drugs, many patients die of easily curable diseases.

Several factors inhibit access to medicines, but the major ones, according to the WHO, are the shortage of resources and the lack of skilled personnel.

“Low-income countries experience poor availability of essential medicines in health facilities, substandard-quality treatments, frequent stock-outs and suboptimal prescription and use of medicines,” says the world health body.

Africa’s inefficient and bureaucratic public sector supply system is often plagued by poor procurement practices that make drugs very costly or unavailable. Added to these are the poor transportation system, a lack of storage facilities for pharmaceutical products and a weak manufacturing capacity.

Africa’s capacity for pharmaceutical research and development (R & D) and local drug production still has a long way to go, say experts. Only 37 out of 54 African states have some level of pharmaceutical production. Except South Africa, which boasts some active local pharmaceutical ingredients, most countries rely on imported ingredients.

The result is that Africa imports 70% of its pharmaceutical products, with India alone accounting for nearly 18% of imports in 2011. Pharmaceutical imports in Africa include up to 80% of the antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) used to treat HIV/AIDS, according to trade data.

“Many African governments spend a disproportionate amount of their scarce resources on procuring medicines,” writes Carlos Lopes, former executive secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.

To produce medicines, a country must abide by Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP), which are enforced by the United States and other governments to ensure the quality of manufacturing processes and facilities. Many African countries do not have the technical, financial or human resources required for high-scale drug production.

But Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Tunisia have made progress in local pharmaceutical productions. Morocco is Africa’s second-largest pharmaceutical producer (after South Africa), and has 40 pharmaceutical manufacturing companies that supply 70% of products for local consumption and also exports to neighbouring countries. Countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Tanzania are currently developing production capacity.


Nearly half of all deaths and about a third of disabilities in low and middle-income countries could be avoided if people had access to emergency care. In Africa the main causes of emergencies are road accidents, obstetric complications, severe illnesses and non-communicable diseases.

During the past 18 years the African Federation for Emergency Medicine, an advocacy group, has been encouraging the development of emergency care systems on the continent. The gaps it has identified include decent transport and hospital services.

But to address these challenges data is needed on the number of hospitals, their locations as well as the population marginalized. Most countries in Africa don't have this information. They lack basic inventories of health care service providers, including the number of hospitals.

Our study set out to address this problem by producing the first ever assessment of hospital services in sub-Saharan Africa, and used it to work out peoples' access to care.

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